Health and Sanitation Practices and Academic Performance of Grade VI Pupils

The provision of health sanitation is a key development intervention – without it, ill health dominates a life without dignity. Simply having access to sanitation increases health, well-being and economic productivity. Inadequate sanitation impacts individuals, households, communities and countries. Despite its importance, achieving real gains in sanitation coverage has been slow. Achieving the internationally agreed targets for sanitation and hygiene poses a significant challenge to the global community and can only be accomplished if action is taken now. Low-cost, appropriate technologies are available. Effective program management approaches have been developed. Political will and concerted actions by all stakeholders can improve the lives of millions of people in the immediate future.Nearly 40 percent of the world’s population (2.4 billion) has no access to hygienic means of personal sanitation. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.8 million people die each year from diarrheal diseases, 200 million people are infected with schistosomiasis and more than 1 billion people suffer from soil-transmitted helminthes infections. A Special Session on Children of the United Nations General Assembly (2002) reported that nearly 5,500 children die every day from diseases caused by contaminated food and water because of health and sanitation malpractice.Increasing access to sanitation and improving hygienic behaviors are keys to reducing this enormous disease burden. In addition, such changes would increase school attendance, especially for girls, and help school children to learn better. They could also have a major effect on the economies of many countries – both rich and poor – and on the empowerment of women. Most of these benefits would accrue in developing nations.The global community has set ambitious targets for improving access to sanitation by 2015. Achieving these goals will have a dramatic impact on the lives of hundreds of millions of the world’s poorest people and will open the door to further economic development for tens of thousands of communities. Access to adequate sanitation literally signifies crossing the most critical barrier to a life of dignity and fulfillment of basic needs.This study determined the health and sanitation practices of the Grade VI pupils in selected public schools in the district of Diadi, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. This research undertaking utilized the descriptive correlation method of research to establish the influence of the profile variables on the respondents’ health practices, sanitation practices, and their academic performance, as well as the relationship between health and sanitation practices with academic performance. The following are the significant findings of the study:Twenty five or 37.31 percent of the respondents are 12 years old; 41 or 61.19 percent are female; 47 or 70.14 percent are Roman Catholics; 22 or 32.84 percent are Ilocano; 20 or 20.89 of the respondents’ fathers reached elementary school level; 21 or 31.34 percent of their mothers are college graduates; 50 or 74.63 percent of their fathers are farmers; 38 or 56.72 percent are housekeepers; 34 or 50.75 percent have family income of 5,000.00 and below; 38 or 56.72 percent have 4 to 6 family members; 36 or 53.73 percent have 2 sanitation facilities; and 42 or 62.69 received 5 immunizations.Health practices in the school obtained a grand mean of 3.89; 3.90 for health practices in the home; and 3.62 for health practices in the community, all qualitatively described as very satisfactory. The respondents perceived their sanitation practices in the school as very satisfactory with a grand mean of 3.44; also very satisfactory for sanitation practices in the home with 3.55; and again, very satisfactory for sanitation practices in the community, with 3.26 grand mean.The perceived health practices of the respondents in the home significantly differ when they are grouped according to father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, family monthly income, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities as evidenced by the computed t-test and F-test results of 2.39, 2.64, 3.19, 3.28, 2.93, 3.18, and 3.19 respectively which are higher than the critical value at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, age, gender, mother’s educational attainment, mother’s occupation, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities caused significant differences in the perceived health practices of the respondents in the school as shown by the computed t-test and F-test results of 3.15, 2.03, 2.39, 3.18, 3.16, and 3.74, respectively; all are higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance. Significant differences were also noted in the respondents’ health practices in the community when they are grouped according to ethnicity, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, family monthly income, number of sanitation facilities, and number of immunization received because the computed t-test and F-test results of 2.76, 2.37, 2.41, 3.148, 3.16, 2.79, 3.26, and 3.17 respectively are higher that the critical values at 0.05 level of significance.There exists a significant difference in the respondents’ sanitation practices in the home when they are grouped according to gender, ethnicity, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, family monthly income, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities because the computed values of t-test and F-test results of 2.05, 2.79, 2.37, 2.51, 2.78, 3.29, and 3.16 respectively are higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance. Moreover, gender, ethnicity, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, family monthly income and number of sanitation practices caused significant variation in the respondents sanitation practices in the school as evidenced by the computed values of 2.15, 2.81, 2.42, 2.87, 2.83, and 3.79 respectively; all are also higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, the respondents perception of their sanitation practices in the community differs when they are grouped according to gender, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, family monthly income and number of sanitation facilities since the computed t-test and F-test results of 2.06, 2.37, 2.41, 3.17, 3.148, 2.78, and 3.25 respectively are higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance.There exists a significant difference in the respondents’ academic achievements when grouped according to gender, as indicated by the computed value of 2.27, which is higher than 1.99 critical values. Father’s and mother’s educational attainment with the computed values of 2.74 and 2.64, respectively, both higher than the critical value of 2.368, and their occupation with 3.17 and 3.27, respectively both higher than the critical value of 3.142 constitute significant variance in the respondents’ academic performance. Family monthly income and number of immunizations received, with the computed values of 2.86 and 3.19, respectively which are higher than the critical values of 2.754 and 3.142, respectively significantly differentiated the respondents’ academic performances. The rest of the variables – age, religion, ethnicity, number of family members, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities do not cause significant differences because the computed values of 2.94, 1.86, 2.71, 2.89, 1.97, and 3.08 respectively were lower than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance.There is very significant relationship between health practices and sanitation practices as evidenced by the computed r-value of 0.72 which is higher than the critical value of 0.241 for 65 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance, indicating high correlation, with a coefficient of determination of 51.84 percent.There exists a very small positive correlation between health practices and academic performance, as indicated by the computed r-value of 0.238 with an equivalent computed t-value of 2.198 which is higher than the critical t-value of 1.99 for 65 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance. The said correlation is significant. Moreover, sanitation practices and academic performance have small positive correlation, as evidenced by the computed r-value of 0.226 with an equivalent computed t-value of 2.07 which is higher than the critical t-value of 1.99 for 65 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance. This result is statistically inferred as significant.Based on the foregoing significant findings, hereunder are the conclusions.1. The respondents are in their pre-adolescence stage, female, Roman Catholics, Ilocano, have fathers who reached elementary level, mothers who are college graduates, have fathers who are farmers, have mothers who are housekeeper, have low income, belong to medium-sized families, have concrete dwellings, have limited sanitation facilities and adequate immunization received.2. The respondents also have very satisfactory health practices at home, in the school, and in the community. The same group of respondents has very satisfactory sanitation practices at home, in the school, and satisfactory sanitation practices in the community.3. The respondents have proficient academic performance.4. Health and sanitation practices of the respondents differ when they are grouped according to selected profile variables.5. Academic performance of the respondents differs when they are grouped according to gender, parents’ occupation, family income and number of immunizations received, but not with age, ethnicity, number of family members, type of dwelling and number of sanitation facilities.6. Very significant relationship exists between health practices and sanitation practices of the respondents.7. Very significant correlation exists between the respondents’ health and sanitation practices and their academic performance.Premised on the above-cited findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are offered:1. Although the respondents demonstrate very satisfactory health and sanitation practices, these should still be enhanced and sustained by implementing various health and sanitation programs.2. The school, as the lead agency, should orchestrate its efforts with other government agencies, such as the DOH, DSWD, DENR, LGU and non-government sectors for the sustainability of health and sanitation programs.3. Activities geared towards sustainability of health and sanitation must be designed/conceptualized, such as conduct of search for healthiest pupil, most sanitary classroom/school and should be expanded to the home and community.4. The scheme of having teacher-coordinators for each purok should be strengthened so that the health and sanitation thereat be improved and maintained.5. Since there is significant relationship between health and sanitation practices and pupils’ academic performance, schools must spearhead the provision of health and sanitation facilities to keep pupils always reminded of their health and sanitation practices.

How You Can Save Up To 47 Percent On Your Health Insurance Right Now

Do Not Read This Unless You are Making a lot of Money!:If you would like to know how you can save up to 47% on your current Health Insurance Coverage read on… this is going to be one of the most informative messages you will ever read. After reading this message you will never going to have words; expensive and health insurance in the same sentence.As you already know health insurance costs are at highest they have ever been and there is no sign of them slowing down. More and more Americans are forced to cancel their coverage simply just because they cannot afford it.
Who are the uninsured?o Approximately 46 million Americans, or 15.7 percent of the population, were without health insurance in 2004 (the latest government data available).o The number of uninsured rose 800,000 between 2003 and 2004 and has increased by 6 million since 2000.o The increase in the number of uninsured in 2004 was focused among working age adults. The percentage of working adults (18 to 64) who had no health coverage climbed from 18.6 percent in 2003 to 19.0 percent in 2004. An increase of over 750,000 in 2004.o Nearly 82 million people – about one-third of the population below the age of 65 spent a portion of either 2002 or 2003 without health coverage.o The number of uninsured children in 2004 was 8.3 million – or 11.2 percent of all children in the U.S. (1).You might say that I have great coverage that I am happy with… that’s totally fine.For past sever years average rate increase for health insurance was 16.2% and what if it keeps on going? If you are right now paying $500 per month for your health insurance in three years from now you would expect to pay over $780 for the same plan. Wait… we all know that insurance companies consistently decrease their benefits and increase co-pays and deductible. Therefore you will pay more for less coverage. By the way if you keep same plan for over five years you will pay over $1000 a month just for your medical coverage. What if you use your Health Insurance?… Chances are if it is not for a regular doctor visits or a check ups it would be considered pre-existing condition. That means your chances of changing to a more affordable coverage in the future will be nearly impossible. That is one of the main reasons people cancel their health insurance because they were diagnosed with something or taking a prescription medication and the insurance company kept raising their rate until they could not qualify for any other coverage and could not afford the one they had.Now you are saying I do not need coverage my spouse works for a company and I have group coverage… Great.What would happen if your spouse left that job or the company stopped providing benefits? Probably the most obvious things that you can see how much that group coverage is really costing you. Next time check how much is deducted out of the paycheck for health coverage, especially for dependents. Group plans do cost more money because by law they are what are called “guaranteed issue”. That means you can have serious medical conditions and still get coverage. Insurance companies have to follow the law and they know they have to accept everyone who works for a large company, therefore they do charge more money for coverage. The biggest problem is not the cost of group health insurance it is what happens if some one, while on the group plan, is diagnosed with a condition or starts to take prescriptions medications. We get back to same issues as mentioned before, unable to qualify for health insurance in the future. There are people that want to leave their job but they cannot because they are going through treatment and cannot to pay for it on their own.There is another solution… Some might save, so what is the point of even having health insurance. Once you diagnosed with something and insurance company is going to keep raising rates to the point where I am going to have to cancel it anyway. Especially if something does happen and I have to use my coverage I might not be working and I might not have income. Is my insurance company is still going to keep raising my rates? YES.Before you think about canceling your coverage consider this. Here are some statisticso A recent study by Harvard University researchers found that the average out-of-pocket medical debt for those who filed for bankruptcy was $12,000. In addition, the study found that 50 percent of all bankruptcy filings were partly the result of medical expenses. Every 30 seconds in the United States someone files for bankruptcy in the aftermath of a serious health problem.o Illness and medical bills caused half of the 1,458,000 personal bankruptcies in 2001, according to a study published by the journal Health Affairs.o Average day in the hospital is $7500 per day.How can you save up to 47% on your health insurance? Simple… You probably already heard of Health Saving Accounts. They are becoming more and more popular everyday. With the way health insurance prices are moving today Health Saving Accounts are the only way to keep your coverage, save hundreds per month on your health insurance and still have a peace of mind.To this day I was not able to hear a good definition that everyone can understand. I will do everything I can to make it simple to understand. The easiest way to understand Health Saving Accounts is to think of them as Roth IRA or your Company’s 401k plan. Instead of giving your money away to insurance company you get to keep it more of it for yourself. The way HSA plans work is there health insurance combined with savings account which works in a similar way to your retirement account. There tremendous benefits to have HSA qualified health plan. First all the money that you put in to your HSA account is 100% tax deductible and it is your money that rolls over year after year. At the age of 65 and up if you have not used up all of your HSA money you can roll it over in to your retirement account. Second your health insurance costs are going to be cut almost in half. For example if you had Health Insurance plan with $2500 deductible now and it is costing you $300 per month the same plans with HSA qualified plan, now will cost you only about $160 per month. The reason you save so much money with HSA qualified health plan is because HSA qualified plans do not cover anything until the deductible is met. There are exceptions depending on the Health Insurance Company. Some insurance companies will pay for your once a year physical before you meet your deductible.Let take an example of how HSA qualified plan could benefit you. Let take some actual numbers from actual health insurance company. In this example I am going to use HSA plans from company called Assurant Health. Assurant Health is leader in Health Saving Accounts and they one of the first companies to implement them. The main reason is that Assurant Health is part of the world’s largest financial company that sets up retirement accounts. In this example I am going to use a family of four, husband 46, wife 42, kids are 12 and 16. On a regular family plan with $2500 deductible, maximum out of pocket of $5500, co-insurance of 80% and doctor visits covered with $35 co-pay, they are going to pay $676.40. Something to keep in mind that all of the regular PPO plans that are available on the market today have family deductible which is double of individual deductible. That means that if you have a plan with $2500 deductible and $5500 maximum out of pocket that means that your family deductible is $5000 and your family maximum out of pocket is $11,000. When we are comparing HSA qualified health plans there is only one deductible, once you meet it you are covered at 100% on the most plans. There are some companies and plans that you still might be responsible for the percent age of the bill until you reach your maximum out of pocket. Most HSA plans do not have maximum out of pocket that meant once you met your deductible you are covered at 100%, it’s that simple. The same plan with $5700 deductible for the entire family with HSA qualified health plans will only be $491.64 per month. For the total monthly savings of 184.76 per month. Also your maximum out of pocket will decrease from $11,000 on a regular plan to $5700 with HSA health plan. That’s yearly savings of $2,217.12 and additional savings of $5300 on the maximum out of pocket. (that’s if you have had to use the plan for emergencies) The main reason for starting HSA health insurance is for Saving Account and being able to put money in to account, at your discretion, tax free. You can put money in to HSA qualified account up to your deductible and you do not have to put any money in to that account if you do not want to. Health Saving Accounts are as flexible as you would want them to be. TO get more information on HSA accounts and get quotes for HSA qualified health coverage see my bio.